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Energy Performance Directive
(Directive 2010/31/EU)

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The recast of the Directive on the energy performance of buildings (EPBD) of 19th May, 2010 was published in the Official Journal of the European Union on 18th June, 2010. Since 8th July, 2010 it is officially in force. The European Union intensified with the recast of the directive of 2002 the implementation orders for the Member States. It thereby reinforced its goal to increase the overall energy efficiency of buildings in Europe.

Former version: 2002/91/EC

Already based on the first EPBD, the European Union asked the Member States among other things to create:

  • Holistic calculation methods for buildings, which may include an assessment of CO2 emissions
  • Energy demand limits for new buildings
  • Requirements to use renewable energies for new buildings
  • Energy demand limits for comprehensively refurbished buildings
  • Energy certification for all public buildings, publically accessible buildings
  • Regular controls of the effectiveness of heat- or cold-generators

Germany had almost completely implemented the original directive of 2002 with the Energy Saving Ordinance 2002/2004. After the adoption of the Energy Saving Act 2007, all requirements of this directive were fully implemented in Germany.

For the former version of the EPBD, please visit the Archive.

Recast 2010

The recast of the Directive requires Member States to include:

  • Introduction of a "nearly-zero-energy building" as standard for all new buildings as of 2021, for buildings occupied and owned by public authorities already as of 2019. This standard describes a building that has very high energy performance. "The nearly zero or very low amount of energy required should be covered to a significant extent by energy from renewable sources, including energy from renewable sources produced on-site or nearby." (Article 9)
  • Calculation of the "cost optimal level" of energetic requirements for new buildings and the building stock. Every Member state is obligated to calculate its individual cost optimal level and to compare the results with the current requirements in place. The calculation method was published 16th January, 2012 in the Commission’s official Journal.
  • Independent control systems for energy certificates. As quality assurance for energy certificates, Member States shall ensure that a statistically significant sample of all energy certificates annually issued will be reviewed. (Article 18 in conjunction with Annex 2)
  • Strengthening of energy performance certificates (EPC). The energy certificate (or copy thereof) shall be provided for the rental or sale of a property / apartment from the seller or property owner and be actively present to hand, rather than - as before - be presented only on request. (Article 12)
  • Extension of requirement for display of EPC. The display obligation for energy performance certificates will be extended to all (public and private) buildings, in which the public frequently visits more than 500 m². The limit will be lowered to 250 m² after 9th July, 2015. (Article 13)
  • Energy performance indicators in commercial advertisement. For commercial real estate advertisements it is required to state an indicator of the overall energy efficiency based on an existing energy performance certificate. (Article 12)
  • Experts lists. In each European country a regularly updated lists of energy performance certificates assessors should be made available to the public. (Article 17)

Given the deadline of the directive, Member States had to implement the EPBD in national legislation by 9th July, 2012. The Federal Institute for Research on Building, Urban Affairs and Regional Planning supported the Ministries at that time in charge of this (BMVBS and BMWi) by providing advice on the technical implementation.
Download European Directive (2010/31/EG) on the energy efficiency of buildings - Recast:

Information of other Member States are published in the European portal for energy efficiency in buildings:

Current amendment 2018/844/EU

In course of the EU-Commissions “Winter package” of 2016 (“Clean Energy for All Europeans – unlocking Europe's growth potential”), the EPBD was amended once more. After negotiations and decisions in Council and Parliament, the amendment was published in the EU Official Journal on 19th June, 2018. The resulting needs for transposition into national German law are still under consideration.

The new provisions of the consolidated directive are due for transposition into national law before 10th March, 2020, with the exception of the provisions given in paragrap 4 of the articles 14 and 15, which must get into force by 1st January, 2025.

Consolidated Directive as published on 9th July, 2018

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